APPENDIX 5: ETHNIC CHURCHES IN 1860

 

 

            The Old School maintained a regular interest in working with various ethnic groups in different regions. Reference has been made to the French and Portugese in Illinois, but the largest work was among the Germans in the midwest. I have not attempted an exhaustive search of all the ethnic congregations in the Old School. The following list draws on newspaper accounts and the General Assembly’s Minutes (1860). From 1847-1863 the Old School counted “colored” membership, largely as a way to measure the success of the southern churches in ministering to the slaves. Not surprisingly, in 1864 the Old School General Assembly discontinued the practice.

 

Ethnic Churches in the Old School, 1860

 

German (32)

Presbytery             church                                    ethnicity                com         total $     pastor[1]

Hudson                  Jeffersonville, NY German                   80            $200        Herman Veith (SS)[2]

New York               NYC                                        German                   585          $584        Frederick Steins (P, DM)

Nassau                   Brooklyn                                German                   155          $415        J. Neander (FM, P)

Elizabethtown       Meyersville, NJ                    German                   NR          NR          Isaac A. Blauvelt (DM)

Passaic                   Paterson, NJ                          German                   97            $154        Edward M. Weiss (P)

Luzerne                  Scranton, PA                        German                   220          $852        Charles D. Rosenthal (P)

Allegheny City     Manchester, PA                   German                   28            $127        John A. F. Launitz? (SS)

                                Rochester, PA                      German                   22            $142        Launitz?

Zanesville              Salem, OH                              German                   75            $481        Wm. C. Kiesel (SS)

New Albany          New Albany, IN                   German                   35            $248        Philip Roser (SS)

Hillsboro’              Fosterburgh IN–Zion Ch    German                   44            $151        Henry Blanke (SS)

                                Jerseyville, IN                       German                   34            $9            Vacant


                Ethnic Churches in the Old School, 1860

Presbytery             church                                    ethnicity                com         total $     pastor

Rock River             Galena, IL                              German                   NR          NR          Vacant

Milwaukee             Sharon, WI                            German                   NR          NR          not named (SS)

                                Wheatland, WI                     German                   NR          NR          not named (SS)

                                West Granville, WI              German                   30            NR          Vacant

                                Milwaukie, WI                      German                   25            NR          not named (SS)

Cedar                      Muscatine, IA                      German                   29            $238        Jacob Kolb (P)

Dubuque               Dubuque, IA                         German                   135          $836        A. Van Vliet (P)

                                Waukon, IA                          German                   34            $113        John Renskers (SS)

                                Lycurgus, IA                        German                   14            $35          John Renskers (SS)

                                Dyersville, IA                       German                   30            $184        Jacob Coussett (SS)

                                Sherrold’s Mound, IA         German                   28            $1            Jacob Coussett (SS)

                                Independence, IA                German                   45            $43          F. C. Schwartz (now Vacant)

St. Louis                Emanuel ch, MO                   German                   62            $228        A. Van der Lippe (P.E.)

                                Bethel ch, MO                      German                   184          $923        John G. Schaible (P)

                                Zion ch, MO                         German                   21            $82          John G. Schaible (P)

                                Zoar ch, MO                         German                   32            $66          John G. Schaible (P)

                                Nazareth ch, MO                  German                   24            $50          John G. Schaible (P)

                                Bethlehem ch, MO               German                   46            $223        R. Shide (P.E.)

New Orleans         New Orleans, LA German                   50            $14          J. C. Seybold (SS or P)

Brazos                    Galveston, TX                      German                   59            $647        H. P. Young (SS)

Portugese (3)

Presbytery             church                                    ethnicity                com         total $     pastor

Sangamon (IL)      Springfield–1st Portugese  Portugese              83            $329        Vacant

                                Springfield–2d Portugese   Portugese              63            $353        Antonio De Mattos? (PE)

                                Jacksonville–Portugese      Portugese              159          $312        Antonio De Mattos?

Welsh (2)

Presbytery             church                                    ethnicity                com         total $     pastor

Philadelphia          Philadelphia–Welsh ch       Welsh                    35            NR          not named (SS)

Columbus              Columbus–Welsh ch           Welsh                    30            NR          not named (SS)

French (3)

Presbytery             church                                    ethnicity                com         total $     pastor

Chillicothe             Mowrertown–French ch     French                    50            NR          Valentine Rondiez (lic SS)

Chicago                 St Anne–French ch             French                    800          NR          Charles Chiniquy (P)

                                Kankakee–French ch           French                    200          NR          Charles Chiniquy (P)

African (4)                           

Presbytery             church                                    ethnicity                com         total $     pastor

New York               NYC–Seventh Avenue                                       138          $437        Henry M. Wilson (P)[3]

New Brunswick    Princeton–Witherspoon St                                128          $262        not named (SS)

Philadelphia          Philadelphia–1st African                                    153          $150        J. C. Gibbs (P)

Baltimore               Baltimore–Madison St                                        67            $875        R. H. Revels (P)

 

 


Other churches with significant “colored” membership

(churches with an unusually large number or percentage of colored communicants for its region)

Presbytery                             Church                                                   Com        Colored  (Pastor)                 

Elizabethtown       NJ           Lamington                                             171          22            (William W. Blauvelt)         

                                                Elizabethtown–1st Ch                         530          28            (Nicholas Murray)              

New Brunswick                    Cranberry–2nd Ch                               306          22            (Thomas D. Hoover)           

Carlisle                   PA          Mercersburg                                         260          30            (Thomas Creigh)                 

Chillicothe             OH          Red Oak                                                 68            7              [the most in the northwest]

Missouri                MO         Auxvasse                                              181          25

                                                Fulton                                                    302          24

St. Louis                MO         Washington                                          120          21

                                                Newport                                 98            34            (vacant)

Louisville               KY          Big Spring                                             198          38                                                           

Transylvania         KY          Paint Lick                                               185          47            (R. A. Johnston)                  

                                                Danville–1st Ch                                    248          50            (J. L. Yantis)

Lexington              VA          Mint Spring--Bethel Ch                       164          25                                                           

                                                New Providence                                   286          46            (vacant)

East Hanover        VA          Namozine                                               41            23

                                                Amelia                                                    79            17

                                                Brunswick                                             58            18

Roanoke                NC          Mercy Seat                                            76            32

                                                Bethesda                                               84            36

                                                Roanoke                                                172          121          (Alexander Martin)

                                                Charlotte CH Village Ch                      182          52

Orange                   NC          Hawfields                                              224          35

                                                Shiloh                                                     90            30

                                                Clarkesville                                            104          34

                                                Nutbush                                                43            27

                                                Lexington                                              91            23

                                                Madison                                                122          25

                                                Washington                                          130          33

Fayetteville           NC          Galatia & Barbacue                              231          29

                                                Antioch & Philadelphus                     296          76

                                                Bethel & Lumbridge                            194          37

                                                Laurel Hill & Montpelier                     273          76

                                                Centre                                                    358          132          (F. K. Nash)

                                                Buffalo & Tirza                                     234          39

                                                Wilmington–1st Ch                             195          50

                                                Hopewell & Rockfish                          174          26

                                                Keith, Mt Williams, Mt Edwards & Lillington 148          60

                                                Smyrna & Ashpole                              312          20

                                                Sandy Grove, Long Street, & Bethesda           283          44

                                                Cypress & China Grove                      213          28

Concord NC          Mallard Creek                                       219          60

                                                Rocky River                                          616          176          (Daniel A. Penick Sr)

                                                Paw Creek                                              213          25

                                                Goshen, New Hope & Olney              306          26

                                                Third Creek                                           273          87

                                                Back Creek                                            156          74            (vacant)

                                                Fourth Creek                                         173          28

                                                Steele Creek                                          389          110          (James B. Watt)

                                                Pleasant Hill                                          117          31


                Other churches with significant “colored” membership (continued)

Presbytery                             Church                                                   Com        Colored  (Pastor)                 

Concord (cont.)                    Sugar Creek                                           267          73

                                                Hopewell                                               189          53

                                                Prospect                                                285          57

                                                Thyatira                                 155          34

                                                Providence                                            157          52

                                                Sharon                                                   171          33

                                                Poplar Tent                                           267          105          (Daniel A. Penick Jr)

                                                Bethpage                                               178          35

                                                Centre                                                    127          25

                                                Philadelphia                                          276          68

South Carolina      SC           Aveleigh                                                50            20

                                                Lebanon                                                90            24

                                                Willington                                             138          40

                                                Liberty Spring                                       201          77

                                                Pendleton--Hopewell Ch                     100          39

                                                Rocky Spring                                        211          50

                                                Rock                                                       138          35

                                                Greenville                                              228          76

                                                Nazareth                                                214          62

                                                Hopewell                                               164          112          (J. O. Lindsey)

                                                Lodimont                                               79            41            (J. O. Lindsey)

                                                Little River                                             71            43            (Robert McLees)

                                                Laurens C.H.                                         176          46

                                                Upper Long Cane                 322          116          (Vacant)

Bethel (1859)         SC           Waxhaw                                 81            36

                                                Bethel                                                     330          70

                                                Catholic                                 254          54

                                                Pleasant Grove                                     256          85

                                                Concord                                 138          47

                                                Mount Olivet                                        146          84

                                                Ebenezer                                                180          61

                                                Bethesda                                               192          50

                                                Fishing Creek                                        156          79

Harmony                SC           Darlington                                             114          26

                                                Mount Zion                                          197          120          (W. M. Reid)

                                                Midway                                                 250          160          (P. Pierson)

                                                Salem (BR)                                             454          382          (George C. Gregg)

                                                Bishopville                                            135          84            (W. W. Wilson)

                                                Indiantown                                            327          220          (J. R. Gilland)

                                                Scion                                                      101          37

                                                Salem (LR)                                             162          95            (Theo. E. Smith)

                                                Lebanon                                                115          45            (Theo. E. Smith)

                                                Brewington                                           198          148          (James McDowell)

                                                Williamsburg                                        250          189          (Edward O. Frierson)

                                                Concord                                 215          158          (vacant)

                                                Walthourville                                        118          43

                                                Darien & Harris Neck                          110          61

 


                Other churches with significant “colored” membership (continued)

Presbytery                             Church                                                   Com        Colored  (Pastor)                 

Charleston             SC           Stoney Creek                                        167          132          (Edward Palmer)

                                                Charleston–2nd Ch                              498          152          (Thomas Smyth)

                                                Columbia                                               253          34

                                                Charleston–Central                              160          40

                                                James Island                                         211          188          John Douglas

                                                Charleston–Glebe St Ch                      149          20

                                                Charleston–Zion Ch                            492          431          (J. L. Girardeau)

                                                Orangeburg                                           78            32

                                                Walterboro’                                          206          155          (M. D. Wood)

                                                Summerville                                           39            31            (A. P. Smith)

                                                Wilton                                                    187          152          (H. R. Dickson)

                                                John’s Island & Wadmalaw               570          510          (J. R. Dow)

Georgia                  GA          Pleasant Grove                                     27            27            (C. C. Jones)[4]

                                                Walthourville                                        118          43           

                                                Darien & Harris Neck                          110          61           

Hopewell               GA          Macon                                                   263          70

Flint River              GA          Pachitla                                                  169          135          (Joseph B. Stevens)

                                                West Point                                            82            41

Cherokee               GA          Roswell                                                  117          45

                                                Dalton                                                    97            31

                                                Tunnel Hill                                            60            23

Florida                    FL           Euchee Valley                                       206          26

South Alabama     AL          Fairview                                 75            32

                                                Mount Pleasant                                    100          21

                                                Selma                                                      144          21

                                                Centre Ridge                                         105          66            (A. C. McNeill)

                                                Marion                                                   183          47

                                                Pisgah                                                    115          48

                                                Valley Creek                                          167          89            (James Watson)

                                                Mobile–2nd Ch                                    154          63

                                                Mobile–Govt St Ch                              394          36

Tuscaloosa           AL          Ebenezer                                                204          40

                                                Mount Zion                                          75            40            (T. S. Winn)

                                                Concord                                 75            33            (T. S. Winn)

                                                Carthage                                                56            44            (T. S. Winn)

                                                Hebron                                                   150          60            (J. Rosamond)

                                                New Hope                                             38            38            (J. Rosamond)[5]

                                                Greensboro’                                          117          25

                                                Bethel                                                     95            40

East Alabama        AL          Bethel                                                     163          33

                                                Good Hope                                            50            35

                                                Pea River                                               107          25

 


                Other churches with significant “colored” membership (continued)

Presbytery                             Church                                                   Com        Colored  (Pastor)                 

Mississippi           MS          Port Gibson                                           176          68

                                                Natchez–1st Ch                                    360          58

                                                Pine Ridge                                             135          95            (S. J. Love)

                                                Union                                                     133          37

                                                Natchez (ch not named)                      219          108          (Joseph Weeks)

                                                Carmel                                                    150          109          (vacant)

Tombeckbee         MS          Columbus                                              203          29

                                                Bethsalem                                              132          24

                                                Columbus--Bethel                                67            44

Central Mississippi MS      Vicksburg                                              144          32

                                                Pecan Grove                                          92            77            (S. W. Davies)

                                                Smithfield                                              33            28

Chickasaw             MS          Harmony                                                82            34

                                                Zion                                                        130          52

North Mississippi MS         College Hill                                            157          47

                                                Sand Spring                                          82            26

Louisiana               LA          Grosse Teste                                         47            36

                                                Bethany                                                 111          44

Red River               LA          Alabama                                                115          20

                                                Good Hope                                            35            20

New Orleans         LA          New Orleans–1st Ch                            502          21

                                                New River                                              50            40

Maury                    TN          Ashwood--Zion Ch                             326          175          (J. Thilman Hendrick)

Memphis               TN          Memphis–1st Ch                                  301          35

                                                Emmaus                                 58            31

                                                Mount Carmel                                       103          27

Indian                     OK          Pine Ridge                                             53            28

                                                Chickasaw                                             139          46

Western Texas     TX          Victoria                                                  102          24

                                                San Antonio                                         122          48



[1]“com” = total communicant members; “total $” = the entire amount of contributions reported by the congregation for all purposes.

[2]SS=Stated Supply; P=Pastor; P.E.=Pastor Elect; DM=Domestic Missionary; lic=licentiate

[3]In 1850 this was known as Emmanuel Church, and Samuel E. Cornish was its stated supply.

[4]Note that all of the communicant members are colored. In all but one other instance, there are at least a few white members to serve as elders (e.g., Zion church under J. L. Girardeau). Most whites feared all-black churches. See chapter seven.

[5]The other all colored congregation in the south, along the lines of C. C. Jones’ experiment.